Brain drain, which is the action of having highly skilled and educated people leaving their country to work abroad, has become one of the developing countries concern. Brain drain is also referred to as human capital flight. More and more third world science and technology educated people are heading for more prosperous countries seeking higher wages and better working conditions. This has of course serious consequences on the sending countries.
While many people believe that immigration is a personal choice that must be understood and respected, others look at the phenomenon from a different perspective. What makes those educated people leave their countries should be seriously considered and a distinction between push and pull factors must be made. The push factors include low wages and lack of satisfactory working and living conditions. Social unrest, political conflicts and wars may also be determining causes. The pull factors, however, include intellectual freedom and substantial funds for research.
Brain drain has negative impact on the sending countries economic prospects and competitiveness. It reduces the number of dynamic and creative people who can contribute to the development of their country. Likewise, with more entrepreneurs taking their investments abroad, developing countries are missing an opportunity of wealth creation. This has also negative consequences on tax revenue and employment.
Most of the measures taken so far have not had any success in alleviating the effects of brain drain. A more global view must take into consideration the provision of adequate working and living conditions in the sending countries. Another option should involve encouraging the expatriates to contribute their skill to the development of their countries without necessarily physically relocating.
Task 1. Choose the right variant:
- Another term for brain drain is:
- capital flight
- human capital flight
- To address the problem of brain drain we should understand:
- the causes.
- the effects.
- Brain drain has terrible consequences on the economic development of :
- sending countries
- receiving countries
- To limit the negative impact of brain drain, expatriates should
- come back to their home countries for good.
- try to help their home countries while staying there.
Task 2. Make a list of at least 7 reasons for and 7 consequences of the brain drain
- Some facts mentioned in paragraph 5 suggest that astrology …
- is a modern science.
- started thousands of years ago.
- is interesting only for the people in trouble.
- is as important as any other science.
- In the last paragraph of the passage the writer explains …
- what he decided to do for his further study of the subject.
- why he decided not to consult an astrologer.
- why he thinks that astrology remains a big mystery.
- why the scientists don’t trust astrology.
Task 3. Write an essay to the following statement:
The brain drain has to be stopped. Do you agree or disagree? Please, give reasons and details to support your answer.
Answers: b, a, a, b
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