The martial arts consist of a series of hand-to-hand unarmed combat tactics. The most popular are karate, judo, jiu jitsu, and kung fu. Many experts believe kung fu does not belong in the category of unarmed self-defense because it can become a killer art in its most violent form.
Chinese jujitsu and its offshoot, judo, are thousands of years old. They began in China and Japan. During the Middle Ages in Japan, common people were not allowed to carry weapons. They devised a self-defense technique that involved a series of holds, trips, strangles, and falls. By the 1700’s, judo and jujitsu were no longer required for self-defense, but these sports survived stressing grace, physical discipline, and spiritual concentration.
Jigaro Kano, a Japanese man, founded the first judo school in 1882. He introduced the system of “belts,” with a white belt for a novice and a black belt for an expert. This system has been extended to karate as well. Judo came to America in 1902.
Karate was introduced in an Okinawa school in 1905. By the year 1922, it had spread to Japan, and eventually was practiced worldwide. Today, the World Union of Karatedo (Karate) Organization sets the rules governing the use of striking, punching, and kicking on various parts of the body. Matches last from two to three minutes and points are scored for blows to the neck, face, kidneys, and midsection of an opponent. The blows are not actually landed: if they were, they could disable or even kill.
Task 1. Answer the questions below
- According to this passage which of the martial arts are thousands of years old?
- karate and judo
- chinese jujitsu and judo
- jujitsu and kung fu
- While a white belt stands for a novice, a black belt stands for a/an
- How long does a karate match last?
- one hour
- two to three minutes
- fifteen minutes
Task 2. Fill in the gaps with one word
- During the Middle Ages in Japan, common people were not allowed to carry _______.
- By the 1700’s judo and jujitsu became sports stressing grace, physical discipline, and __________ concentration.
- The first judo school was founded in 1882 by a ________ man, named Jigaro Kano.
- Judo came to ___________ in 1902.
- Many experts believe __________ does not belong in the category of unarmed self-defense.
- Karate was introduced in an Okinawa school in 1905. By the year 1922, it had spread to Japan, and eventually was practiced _________.
- Judo and jujitsu began in China and _________.
Task 3. Which of the stated kinds of martial arts will you choose for yourself. Why?
Answers: d, c, b
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